Liz is a typical 50-something woman, fit, 70kg (154lbs 5oz), 30 per cent body fat. She goes to the gym every day, and runs for 35 minutes on the treadmill at 10km/h.
But, as she tells me rather often, she can’t lose weight. So what’s going on here: is it Liz, or is it the universe conspiring against her?
Here, in a piece for The Conversation, Tim Olds, professor of health sciences at the University of South Australia, explains all…
How do you actually ‘lose weight’
Let’s start by considering the body as a store of energy. The body can be divided into two components.
One is fat mass, and the rest of the body is called fat-free mass. It’s mostly water, but there’s also bone and muscle protein. Fat contains much more energy (and thus requires more energy to burn).
Like most of the adult population, Liz wants to lose weight. To do this, she has to go into energy deficit: energy out must be greater than energy in. The amount of weight she loses will depend on whether she is losing fat or fat-free mass.
It takes a much bigger energy deficit to lose a kilogram of fat than a kilogram of fat-free mass. We also need a bigger energy deficit per kilogram of weight loss if we are fatter to start with.
For most people, it takes an energy deficit of about 27-32 kJ to lose a gram of body weight.
If Liz runs for 35 minutes at 10km/h on the treadmill, she has a deficit of about 1500kJ, so she will have lost only 50g (1lb 1oz) in a session. If she does this five times a week for a year, however, she will lose over 12kg (26lbs 7oz).
Except, of course, she doesn’t. After a year she’s still stuck on 70kg (154lbs 5oz). Why?
Eating more to compensate for exercise?
The first possibility is that Liz is eating more to compensate for the extra exercise. Her 35 minutes of treadmill running will be entirely undone by a glass and a half of merlot that evening.
There is some evidence people use food to reward themselves for exercising.
A recent analysis suggested women may be particularly prone to fuel up after exercise. So Liz may be unconsciously munching or drinking away that energy deficit.
Being less active elsewhere?
A second possibility is that Liz compensates for going to the gym by being less physically active elsewhere.
She may flop down in front of the TV rather than busying herself with chores. She may even fidget less.
This theory is known as the ‘activitystat’ hypothesis: the idea that we have a setpoint for energy expenditure like the setpoint on a thermostat.
If we increase physical activity in one domain, then there is an automatic compensation in another.
So is Liz undoing all the good work at the gym by couch-potatoing her way through the rest of the day? We tested this rather depressing theory.
Readers will be pleased to know we found no evidence for the activitystat when sedentary adults started an exercise program. They just cranked up the exercise, drawing time from sleep and TV.
A reduction in your resting metabolic rate?
One of the unfortunate side effects of losing weight is resting metabolic rate — the rate at which you use energy when you’re sitting doing nothing — starts to fall (meaning you burn less energy).
A recent study of contestants on The Biggest Loser found their resting metabolic rate was depressed six years after having lost and regained most of the weight.
So Liz could, in principle, be exercising and not have changed her diet or her activity pattern, and yet still not be losing weight because of her lower resting metabolic rate.
However, when weight is lost by exercising (as opposed to diet), resting metabolic rate is generally maintained.
Maybe you’re gaining muscle
A sunnier prospect may be that while she has not lost weight, she has lost body fat, and that body fat has been replaced by fat-free mass.
A kilogram of fat occupies more space (about 1.1 litres) than a kilogram of fat-free mass (about 0.9 litres), so Liz would not only be leaner, but smaller.
We can calculate that if fat mass is entirely replaced by fat-free mass, after 12 weeks Liz will have lost 2.6kg (5lbs 11oz) of body fat, and gained 2.6kg (5lbs 11oz) of fat-free mass.
This sounds good, but does it really work like this? A reasonable rule of thumb is that about 75 per cent of the weight you lose will be fat, and the rest fat-free mass. But things may go better if weight training is involved.
One analysis of previous studies found strength training (using weights or your own body weight) increased fat-free mass by about 2kg (4lbs 6oz) in overweight men and about 1kg in women, even though weight remained unchanged.
A good test of whether you’re swapping fat mass for fat-free mass is just to measure your waist girth.
If it’s getting smaller while your weight is stable, then you’re probably losing fat and gaining fat-free mass.
So what’s happening with Liz?
Is it gluttony or sloth, or is she losing fat and replacing it with fat-free mass? Liz likes this last possibility, but I don’t know.
She certainly looks more toned, but the bottle of merlot is emptier than I thought.
Who say Nigerians got no brain? despite the depraved circumstances that mitigate against the success and progress of people in the country.
A 32 year old man who name is Augustine Otuokwa Ogar, has took everybody aback with is stupendous invention, he constructed a 200 mega watts mini Hydroelectric power plant that generates electricity for the plant site and its surrounding early this year.
He is back again with another stupendous invention, you are not gonna believe it this time he invented a Phone charger that operate on bucket water. I think with this we can say goodbye to electric or generator charging source.
The graduate of Electronic and Computer Technology, University of Calabar (UNICAL), who comes from Wula village, Eastern Boki in Boki Local Government Area of Cross River State, has constructed a Hydroelectric power machine that uses a bucket of water to run using locally sourced materials.
The talented man explained his research on Hydroelectricity to Calabar Reporters as he revealed that the system generate up to 20 watts (20W) of power that powers the injector pump and some phones and it operates when the top tank is filled with a bucket of water.
He said, “The device has two wooden tank (the up and down tank) for collection of water, a pen stock to control water out of the upper tank to the turbine, the turbine that convert the potential energy of water into mechanical energy that rotate the alternator through the pulley system, the alternator that generates power and lastly a riding machine injector pump motor which pump back water from the down tank to the upper tank and the process continues”.
Explaining how it works, Ogar said, “A bucket of water if emptied in the tank and water is allowed to flow and hit, turn the turbine which rotate the alternator, then electricity is generated which then energizes a small pumping machine that pump back the water into the first tank then process continues. The system carries two tanks, up and down tank. I decided not to show everything here for technical reasons
“It operates without a repulsive force or zero back electromotive force (emf). I invented it to be used for practical demonstration on hydroelectricity. It generates up to 20 watt during operation but I stepped down the power to power one blinking LED for demonstration and technical reasons.
“The system generate up to 20 watt of power that Powers the injector pump and some phones and it operates when the top tank is filled with a bucket of water and it’s a continues system. Although, not every part of the system is shown here for technical reasons because it’s going to be a huge technology in the nearest future.
“It shouldn’t be a surprise to any one that water contains both potential and kinetic energy and the law energy that it can be converted from one form to the other. On like mechanical generators, this device has two major sections also, the turbine that does the conversion of the potential energy of the River into motion serves as the mechanical part of the device while the alternator which convert this mechanical energy into electricity, is the electrical part of the device.
“The river that carries both the kinetic and potential energy is the fuel or the power house of the device. This is an era of renewable energy, can we join hands together to really developed this local innovation to solve the problem of power outage in Rural and Urban areas? And also to combat the challenges of global warming? What about training of youths on hydroelectricity by establishing renewable energy? Building training centers across the country and also creating job opportunities. God bless Nigeria”, Ogar concluded.
The medium in which Nigerians traveled to Onitsha from Asaba before the construction of the Niger Bridge was closely examined.
One of the most popular bridges in Nigeria is the Niger Bridge which is more popularly referred to as the Onitsha Bridge.
The Niger Bridge is considered to be of Nigeria’s most economically crucial bridges. It was constructed between 1964 and 1965, and commissioned in December 1965.
The Bridge links the South-Western and the South-Southern region of the country to the South-East. This is because one end leads to Asaba, Delta State and the other to Onitsha, Anambra state. People traveling to Asaba from Onitsha will travel on the bridge and vice versa.
Now, have you ever wondered how people journeyed between Asaba and Onitsha prior to the construction of the famous Onitsha Bridge in 1966? How were people traveling to the East?
Well, in the early 1960s, people traveling across the river Niger to the eastern part of Nigeria achieved their aim through the aid of river ferries of various sizes.
Below are photographs of showing travelers at the jetties and landing points at Asaba end of the river in 1961.
A view taken just off the Niger River banks looking backward along the eastern front of 1960s Asaba, photographed from aboard a Ferry headed southeastward toward Onitsha.
Asaba-Onitsha- Ferry Crossing (1959)
The Asaba riverbank and ferry in 1960.
A private enterprise river ferry stopped at the main Asaba passenger-landing dock in 1966. Photo Credit: Laurens Dawes
Wetin e mean? Child abuse mean when you dey use things like wood, cutlass, iron etc, take bit pikin and you dey punish the pikin well well like you no dey give am food, you go lock the pikin for inside cage, tie am join tree or tie im hand and leg together like animal, or when you no dey take care of the pikin all this one na part of child abuse.
Abuse fit be emotional, physical, spiritual and sexual.
Emotional abuse this na when people dey always dey reject the pikin, dem dey always dey judge the pikin if e do anything. E go dey mek the pikin feel sey e dey useless for life. This one dey affect the pikin mind well well and the way e go dey live and behave too. This na child abuse.
Physical abuse, when you dey handle pikin like sey e be animal and you dey use stick, iron, and even use blow and kick take dey bit pikin like sey you dey fight your mate. When you lock pikin for inside cage, tie e hand and leg together, you dey always lock am for inside house without you no give am food, you dey give am work wey big pass am and if e no fit do am you go bit am well well and you go dey give am market to go sell when e mate dey for school or you no gree put am for school, whether you by dey do am ooh!, or you do am because sey you think sey you dey discipline the child, this na wickedness and na child abuse.
But bible talk for proverb 23:13,14; sey “mek we no fail to correct our pikin: if you bit am with cane e no go die. If you bit your pikin with cane, you dey help am mek e for no go hell”. That one no mean sey we go dey treat our pikin any how ooh!.
This na when big person go dey use small pikin take hold body. This na child abuse.
Spiritual abuse this na when our papa and mama go dey always curse their pikin. The curse fit no happen quick quick, but later for front the curse fit meet the pikin.
Some of our papa and mama dey use vexination and force take bit their pikin, this no good and no be so we suppose handle our pikin.
Child abuse fit affect our pikin well well, this na how e fit take affect dem. When pikin don face physical and emotional abuse the injury go still dey with dem and the thing go always dey for their mind. Pikin wey dey always suffer abuse or don suffer abuse before e dey always feel lonely, fear dey always catch am, e dey always feel sey e dey useless and e no dey feel love at all, this na the opposite of how pikin suppose feel. pikin wey don face abuse before dey always dey heart broken, with mental problem even if the abuse injury don comot.
The things wey follow child abuse na, e dey hard for the pikin to dey sleep, e go always dey get problem for school, fear go dey always catch am, e no go get respect for imself na im be low self esteem, e no dey always happy na im be depression.
Advice to our papa and mama against Child Abuse
Pikin dey always dey happy when dem know sey their papa and mama love dem, care for dem and dey draw dem near body. E good mek our papa and mama know the things wey their pikin fit and no fit do. No dey use problem for work take dey punish your pikin when you dey reach house or if person mek you vex you go dey put am for your pikin body. Repsect your pikin and mek you always treat dem well. If we want correct our pikin mek we do am with love. This go mek your pikin happy and feel love.
Every single child is a reward and a blessing. Whether they bring joy and pride to their parents or they teach how to forgive and be patient. We smile to them with assurance that the world is not a wicked place, whereas, it is. Some children has suffered from molestation, while a good number of children are still suffering from molestation today.
What is Molestation:
It is a physical or sexual abuse a child occasionally encounter.
There are so many violent acts in the world, and child molestation is one of them. The way these paedophiles do with children as they please is sickening. It has come to the point where some parents defile their children also. Not everybody believe it, they find it illogical for a father to have a sexual relationship with his daughter or for a mother to do the same with her son.
The rate of molested children in Nigeria cannot be known for sure, this is because not every victim opens up about being molested. News of the male child being molested is (rare). The victims are afraid, they feel no one will believe them.
Paedophiles target naive and weak children. They have no conscience; they need to satisfy their sexual desires on children because they are mentally deranged set of people. Parents hardly leave their children with a close friend or a relative because, child molestation sometimes happen with people they are familiar with making it more difficult for the child to tell them.
There are sharp and bold children, who are very active and tell their parents everything while there are introverted ones that even a change in behaviour because of what they are going through, would not be noticed by their parents or anybody else.
However, when paedophiles think they have done a job well-done, they leave the child in agony of what had happen. Some children die in the unruly act and are tagged to be missing. Not everyone has sweet dreams with flying cars and butterflies, some have nightmares while others live in a nightmare.
Effects of Molestation:
People who had been defiled when they were young often lived their lives difficultly, which also make them suffer from inferiority complex. Trust was not something they would consider, they become afraid of their own shadow, conscious of their environment and being alone with the opposite sex was out of question.
These traits can also exist in non-victims of child molestation, which is why it is difficult to know someone who has been defiled at a young age. Not all victims of child molestation made it, either they committed suicide, stuck with drugs or made bad decisions in life. Some managed to live through the trauma but it would not have been a bread-and-butter task.
Furthermore, not all parents are ignorant and there happen to be eyes everywhere. Once a paedophile gets caught in the act, he either gets treated with justice or with violence. Medical attention is brought to the victim and then therapy sessions for the traumatic event that had occurred would take place. These does not just happen in movies we watch or novels we read, child molestation is real.
No one can imagine the pain these children go through. It is such a dreadful thing to imagine and yet some children remain silent, they remain silent till they want to be heard or perhaps take it to the grave. The worst of all is when it was done by a parent, seeing him or her as the day goes by with the pretence smile and fake promises.
One would wonder what went wrong, was it the fact that his or her spouse was not satisfying their sexual needs that they had to go for the children? Or was it just an act of hatred on the child? It seems unbelievable but it is true and something needs to be done.
How To Handle Molestation:
Nevertheless, we live in an age were technology is involved in our everyday life, being and looking smart is the real deal. Children have to be enlightened of these monsters in the form of men. They need to know when to scream for help, stay away from strangers and also tell their parents about that uncle or aunty that speaks with sugar-coated tongues. Parents should avoid being ignorant of their children’s whereabouts and always keep a close watch on them.
There are different foundations that take care of sexually abused children but, what about the ones dying on the inside?, how do they get saved?. It is a quite simple thing to do; awareness of child molestation should be made and assurance that nothing will be done to them if they told someone.
Therefore, that is the logical thing to do but then again, the way things are done in the USA is not the same way things are done in Nigeria or the way things are done in Lagos state is not the same way things are done in Delta state.
Imagine a situation where a child tells her parents a man sexually abused her, her parents told the police and the man got arrested. Few minutes later, the child is taken to the hospital and the man is released despite the results from the hospital showing there were signs of intercourse. Why was he released? It is part of the Nigerian constitution that child abuse is a criminal offence.
Could money have something to do with it? Statements like “it is a good thing your child is alive, he will apologise and we assure you that this will not happen again”. The whole situation is just absurd; what kind of parents will let that slide? The type that has no money to place a sue or the type that is ignorant?. Then, what was the point of speaking?
Finally, domestic violence, slavery, human trafficking or political violence should not be the only thing we voiced out. Victims of molestation need to know that there are people ready to listen, ready to fight for them, ready to save them and ready to assure them that paedophiles would be jailed for their wrong doings. They need to know that there’s a light at the end of the dark tunnel. Surely, these paedophiles would get paid in their own coin.